The benefits (direct and indirect) that people derive from ecosystems.
Ecosystem services comprise:
- natural products (provisioning services) such as water, fish and timber;
- natural functions (regulating services), such as flood control, waste assimilation and climate regulation; and
- other social benefits (cultural services) such as recreational, aesthetic and spiritual benefits.
These services are also supported by underpinning natural processes (supporting services) such as nutrient cycling and photosynthesis.
Source: Identifying and assessing water sources: Guidance document for the onshore oil and gas industry, International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA), 2014. Global Standards